Las Vegas Casinos – InfoBarrel

The

parking garage at the New York New York Hotel and Casino is my

favorite ride. The first is the shape of the

building. I assume the

inside of the Palms Casino and Resort is just as beautiful. I disagree.

The New York New York Hotel and Casino is all of the fun of the real

New York but a lot cheaper. On a Sunday when there are only a few cars in there

you can drive your car to the top.

The Palms Casino and Resort is where

the middle class come to see the rich and famous. Angelica Bridges starred on Baywatch and is also a favorite

of Playboy readers. I wish they would have kept

the Egyptian theme at the Luxor Hotel and Casino. If the Aliens

ever come to play poker they will probably come to the Luxor Hotel

and Casino.

Palms Casino and Resort

The Slots-A-Fun Casino is located on

The Las Vegas Strip. During peak nights the Slots-A-Fun

Casino is packed with people wanting to play low limit games. The other

reason the Luxor Hotel and Casino is so cool is because of the huge

light beaming out from the top of the Luxor into space. You may have seen the Palms Casino and Resort on

television. I did once when it was 108 degrees and the

soles on my shoes were soft from the hot asphalt and concrete

literally melting my shoe soles away.

The New York New York Hotel and Casino

was considered a truly amazing architecture and styling casino when

it was first opened. The roller coaster is fun…to watch. If you want a tattoo they have a shop inside.

Regardless of where you want to gamble

in Las Vegas you can always find something cool, tacky, common, rare,

expensive, cheap, or even dirt cheap. I wonder when

Britney plays blackjack and wants another card if she tells the

Blackjack dealer “Hit Me Baby One More Time.” After all of

Britney’s kids I think she was hit again.

Image Credit: (Flickr/davideferro.net) (Flickr/Chad Davis)

There are many casinos in Las Vegas

Nevada. When you are speeding up to the

top layer it looks and feels like you are flying of the edge of the

building onto the roller coaster. What other gaming property in Las Vegas can

offer you a Slurpee? The fact that I can play video poker with bad

odds and drink blue colored Slurpee’s all day makes the 7-11

convenience stores an awesome Las Vegas gaming property.

At night time the Palms Casino and

Resort is an absolutely gorgeous building. The Luxor Hotel and

Casino is really cool for two reasons. You are right down by the

Fremont Light Show and all of the casinos and sites located in the

downtown area of historic Las Vegas. The rich and famous

come to the Palms Casino and Resort to be seen by the middle class

tourists. You can also walk if you are not lazy. The 7-11 stores are not considered a casino to

most people. $3.00 Black Jack is the favorite game of

many people in Las Vegas. If you do want to see the Strip

you are a very short bus ride away. At least they

have not changed the sweet shape f the pyramid.

times.

. It is by the Circus Circus Hotel and Casino.

Slots-A-Fun Casino has many low limit table games including $1.00

blackjack. The Luxor Hotel and

Casino of today appears much different then the magnificent building

that was originally there. Do not

attend the Slots-A-Fun Casino on a weekend or any other time the

place is busy. It is a popular spot for

amateur photographers to snap a world class picture. Slots-A-Fun Casino is a fun place to gamble cheaply if you

go there during a slow time. Downtown Las Vegas is much funner and generally cheaper then staying on the

Vegas Strip. The Palms Casino and Resort has been the site of many TV

shows. I have

never been inside the Palms Casino and Resort except for when I see

this Vegas Hotel on television.

I am a huge fan of the downtown Vegas

properties but this strip property make my list. The appearance is drastically different,.

The Luxor Hotel and Casino has changed from an Egyptian theme to a

corporate owned casino filled with gimmicky adverting. Many people now days consider the New York New

York Hotel and Casino to be slightly on the tacky side. Regardless of your budget you can find

somewhere fun and unique to gamble while visiting Las Vegas.

Luxor Hotel and Casino

The 7-11 convenience stores in Las

Vegas are everywhere. They usually have some video gaming machines. There are always exceptions and some great deals can be

found for the Las Vegas Strip hotels and casinos during non peak

7-11

The Gold Spike Hotel and Casino has

some lower limit tables such as $2.00 Blackjack. If it is summertime and over 100 degrees I highly suggest you

do not walk the strip. When the Slots-A-Fun Casino is empty of locals and

tourists then it is a very fun place to gamble in Las Vegas. You can find $1.00 black jack or $1,000 black jack tables.

From the high rollers VIP areas in fancy Vegas Casinos to the smoky

keno rooms with ragged carpet. The Gold Spike Hotel and Casino also has a

sports book inside called “Leroy’s Sports book”.

Slots-A-Fun Casino

New York New York Hotel and Casino

In 2007 they replace most of the

Egyptian themed items and decorations. Just because you may want to

visit an expensive Las Vegas Casino that does not mean you have to

play there.

The Gold Spike Hotel and Casino is

located in my favorite part of Las Vegas.

Gold Spike Hotel and Casino

The Palms Casino and Resort is a

favorite of Britney Spears when she visits Las Vegas. If it is

not a slow night then do not even bother to show up to the

Slots-A-Fun Casino.

If you visit the Palms Casino and

Resort make sure your bring your camera so you can take a picture of

the Paparazzi who may be there outside snapping pictures of the rich

and famous when they arrive at the Palms Casino and Resort.

While visiting the Luxor Hotel and

Casino make sure you get tickets to the show starring Angelica

Bridges. (readers or lookers?) The show is adult oriented

so don’t take Paul “Pee Wee” Reubens with you.

If you choose to stay at the Gold Spike

Hotel and Casino during you vacation to Las Vegas you will be well

rewarded with your choice of location. I love the

7-11 stores for gambling. It is modeled after the gr

eat pyramids of Egypt. Fremont Street. $2.00 Blackjack is

only available occasionally

AIDS Patient Zero – InfoBarrel

Memory Elvin-Lewis was kind enough to respond to this piece in person.

Current scientific research is clear: sometime in the 1930s, a simian form of immunodeficiency virus mutated sufficiently and made the leap across species to become a contagious disease of people. 

Occasionally, medical mysteries initially thought solved are found later to have very different truths at their cores.

Dugas may have personally, and directly, been responsible for dozens of AIDS cases (and no telling how many more indirectly), but he did not bring AIDS to the US, nor was he the first confirmed AIDS victim.  As noted, several California men and some Haitian immigrants were found later to have succumbed to the disease before Dugas.

In 1976, a Norwegian sailor, designated with the alias “Arvid Noe”, died; his wife and nine-year-old daughter died the next year of the same wasting disease.  In 1961, the 15-year-old Noe had sailed on his first voyage to Africa.  He worked a merchant vessel that plied along Africa’s west coast from mid-1961 to mid-1962; during this voyage he was treated for gonorrhea.  He sailed again to Africa in 1964, with a port of call in Kenya in eastern Africa.  In 1966, Noe started suffering from chronic joint pain and recurrent lung infections.  By 1968, he could no longer pass a physical to sail, so he worked as a long-haul truck driver. 

A strange disease lurked among the gay denizens and creepers of the bath houses, though.  Men began dying of pneumonia and other respiratory illnesses, but only after drastically losing weight and developing horrific skin lesions on their faces, necks, backs, and chests.  This disease became known in the gay community as “gay cancer”.  It was particularly volatile, and it progressed rapidly.  Dugas caught it early, possibly with his first encounter in the New York gay bathhouse on Halloween 1980.

Finally, in 1968, the boy was admitted to St. . Louis. 

The dubious distinction of being America’s “Patient Zero” – the first documented and verifiable case of AIDS in the country – belongs not to Dugas but to a mildly mentally retarded black teenager named Robert Rayford (born ca. many cases of AIDS have been autopsied that we didn’t even know had AIDS.”

The discrimination in the labor market meant the United States Supreme Court had to step in and force airlines to hire male flight attendants.  This happened in 1971 after nearly 20 years of female-dominated service.  Even then, the Court’s decision forcing US airlines to hire men was greeted with derision in the press.  It also raised homophobic fears of placing men in such a servile and sexualized role. Somewhere, there was a Patient Zero, the epidemiological well-spring from which this plague spewed forth.

Update note:Dr. .   The swelling in his legs was bothersome, his genitals and legs were covered in scrofulous skin, and his testicles were severely swollen.  He was also emaciated (having lost much weight suddenly), and even though he was an African-American male he was considered “pale”.  He also had shortness of breath.  His symptoms led his caregivers at Barnes Hospital to conclude that one of his problems was lymphedema (a swelling caused by lymphatic problems).  This was only a tiny part of his health issues, however.

Good investigative work requires dogged determination.  Running an enigma to ground can take years. 

The music scene was fueled by this gay celebration, none more blatantly than by a vocal group of disco hustlers calling themselves “The Village People”.  They dressed in favorite and stereotypical gay icon costumes – a policeman, a construction worker, a cowboy, a gay biker, and a Native American.  They were hugely successful for a short time with big sellers “In the Navy” and “YMCA”.  More subtly, Donna Summer performed her brand of dance music that was embraced by the gay community as was she.

Before Robert Rayford in the US, there was a possible case found in a dead Jamaican native named Ardouin Antonio.  He came to the US in 1927.  He was working as a shipping clerk for a clothier when he died at age 49 on June 28, 1959, in Manhattan.  He had developed a very rare kind of pneumonia, seemingly out of the blue.  Decades later the doctor who had performed Antonio’s autopsy was asked to re-evaluate the case.  Did he think Antonio possibly died of AIDS?  “You bet . It was so unusual at the time . 1952-1953).

One such mystery concerned the AIDS epidemic in America.  As long as the killer remained comfortably within the gay community not much was done to investigate.  As soon as AIDS found its way into the heterosexual population, though, suddenly America’s interest in ferreting out the cause was paramount.  Panic stricken virologists and other epidemiologists worked feverishly to isolate the source of this sexually transmitted disease first endemic among homosexual men. 

On October 31, 1980 – ominously enough, Halloween night – the French-Canadian gay male steward Gaëtan Dugas visited a gay bathhouse for the first time on a layover in New York City.

The Road to Zero

The commercial airlines recognized the goldmine presented by hiring female “stewardesses”.  Certainly, they were paid less.  There was also marketability in women that men did not have – women could be hawked by an airline as possible sex partners for the discriminating male traveler choosing its service over another.

Homophobia was so great by the late 1950s almost no airlines in the United States would hire men as flight attendants – even Eastern and Pan Am stopped hiring stewards.  Stewardesses, however, were very desirable.  They were marketed as young, beautiful, and sexually available–this was hardly an acceptable career choice for any he-man.  In the same way that the sexual orientation of male nurses was suspect, only “pansies” wanted to be stewards.

Ground Zero

Molecular research shows the AIDS epidemic of the 1980s stemmed from a viral strain that had entered the US via Haiti about 1966.  Other strains have been isolated as well.  As in cases like Robert Rayford’s, the disease died with him (though he probably infected others, those people likely did not have access to the sheer number of sexual partners that, for example, Gaëtan Dugas had, and died before spreading it much). 

Anal scarring also indicated repeated sexual penetration.

AIDS in the United States was isolated in pockets of contagion until the promiscuity (homosexual or otherwise) of the 1970s gave the disease a clear path of propagation in humans.  IV drug use, on the rise in the 1970s and early 1980s, also provided another avenue of blood-exchange necessary for the virus to thrive. 

Omega Man

In conjunction with Studio 54, other bars for gay men to frequent thrived.  Another meeting place was the bath houses still found in many larger cities.  Once serving the utilitarian function for neighborhood residents to bathe (considering most homes up until the late 1920s did not have indoor plumbing) these quaint reminders of The Good Old Days were social gathering places for gay men.  They were prevalent in New York City and in San Francisco.  [Bette Midler, a great favorite among gay men, got her start singing in gay bath houses; her piano player in those days was songwriter/musician Barry Manilow).. Kramer was a writer in New York and a part of the gay culture.  He, however, decided that merely watching his friends die quietly wasn’t enough. 

The hedonism of the 1970s raged unchecked, and by the middle of the decade “gay” culture became pop culture.  Gay male partiers in the mid 1970s found an outlet on New York’s Fire Island.  Gay men rented time-share space in houses on the island and partied their summers away “in season”. 

The direct lineage of HIV-1 was traced to two groups of mutations that formed in the primates that carried the simian version.  One of the groups was dated to between 1847 and 1907; another subgroup dated to between 1606 and 1871.  HIV-2 made the leap most likely between the date range of 1856 and 1922.  Thus, it can be seen some prototypical version of the AIDS virus can be dated to the early 17th century.

In the end one can see there is no modern-day “Patient Zero”.

For one gay man, however, being a steward was all he’d needed to satisfy both his wanderlust and his physical lust. 

Without a precise diagnosis, Rayford’s cause of death was attributed to the catch-all vagary “loss of vitality”.  Intractable fluid imbalance and lung disease were listed as contributors.  An autopsy revealed a surprise – his body carried a very rare cancer called Kaposi’s sarcoma internally (though he had but one external lesion on his right thigh).  [Today, this cancer and its lesions are bellwethers of AIDS.] 

As early as his 13th year or sooner, he was sexually active.  Beginning in 1966, he started having some physical problems that seemed chronic.  His legs swelled, and he developed sores on his genitals and body. 

The criteria for entry were pure sadism: one night only women might be allowed in; other times, a sloppily dressed man might be sent away while another, looking exactly like that man but “famous”, would be let in.  Gay-themed parties were held there often, and casual sex in the bathrooms and the “exclusive” privacy lounge was common among attendees.

First denying he was sick, he later willfully and maliciously spread the disease to unsuspecting partners.  After having casual sex in a darkened room once, a male interviewee later reported he had turned on a light in the room where Dugas lay naked on a bed.  This man spotted the lesions (Kaposi’s sarcoma) that were the classic earmarks of “gay cancer” on Dugas’ chest.  When he remarked upon it, Dugas replied sardonically, “It’s gay cancer.  Maybe you’ll get it.”

Gaëtan Dugas died in Quebec City, Quebec, Canada, on March 30, 1984, at the age of 31.  His cause of death was kidney-failure brought on by his weakened condition from an onslaught of infections and ailments from AIDS.

Gaëtan Dugas was a French-Canadian born February 20, 1953.  His life was on a collision course with history.  In 1972, Dugas first became sexually active.  [He would later claim he had over 2,500 sexual partners in his lifetime, whether all male is unknown.  He may have been bisexual.] 

Dugas, meanwhile, knew he was sick.  He didn’t know exactly what was wrong, but he had developed the skin lesions, associated with “gay cancer”.  But one can’t spread cancer, of course, because cancer isn’t contagious.  He indiscriminately continued having sex with men as his whims overtook him.  His “advantage” was his mobility – as a flight attendant, he might be in any part of the US, Canada, or the world on a moment’s notice.  His bitterness about having gay cancer crossed over into his lackadaisical attitude about possibly harming others.

This good person also kindly corrected some of the misinformation about Rayford via a personal e-mail and was also kind enough to forward professional papers on the subject.  One such paper, in Lymphology from 1973, gives, perhaps, the best clinical synopsis of the case.  Another article, entitled Documentation of an AIDS Virus Infection in the United States in 1968 (by the same doctor and others), is also a “must read” for anyone interested in the earlier origins of AIDS in America. 

Rayford lived in a brownstone in a poor neighborhood in St. It existed as “slim disease”; the condition was universally ignored though many Africans died after mysteriously wasting away.  In 1959, about the time the Manhattan Jamaican shipping clerk died of his rare pneumonia, a blood sample from a Congolese man was taken and preserved.  Years later, this proved to be HIV-infected.  This Congolese man’s fate is unknown (whether he developed full-blown AIDS and died from it or not).  Similarly, a preserved lymph-node biopsy specimen taken from a Congolese woman in 1960 later proved to be HIV-positive.

He led doctors to believe any of his sexual activities were strictly heterosexual, even claiming at one point to having a girlfriend (who failed to surface at the time).  [This female was found some time later and was found to be in perfect health, relative to HIV and AIDS, from which one can only surmise she and Rayford had no intimate sexual intercourse or such activities were rare enough she was not exposed to critical levels by whatever ailed him.]

There is an apocryphal story that Patient Zero was really Patient “O” (as in the 15th letter of the English alphabet, first letter of the word “Omega” for the last letter of the Greek alphabet, ?).  Furthermore, it was alleged that a journalist misinterpreted the “O” (for “?”), and instead wrote up his report, referring to the AIDS’ source as “Patient 0″ [“zero”] instead.

He was admitted with multiple, and strange, symptoms (given his tender age). . Doctors, helpless to find the cause of death for the Noe family, preserved some tissue samples.  In 1988, further testing showed Noe, his wife, and his daughter had all been HIV-positive

And the real Patient Zero – the HIV-Adam or HIV-Eve – lived and most likely died there, somewhere in the Congo, unknown and unrecognized for the catastrophic role he or she would play in human history. 

Tracing backward from Haiti (the source of the US strain in 1966) put the disease firmly in Central Africa. Louis, Missouri.  His mother’s name was Constance Rayford, and he had a brother named George.  Rayford was described as slender.  His retardation left him relatively uncommunicative from shyness. 

Less Than Zero

But, it doesn’t end there. 

Noe’s condition stabilized, but then flared up again in 1975 (coincidentally the same year a strange disorder called “slim disease” was reported in Africa for the first time, the beginnings of epidemic AIDS).  In addition to the respiratory condition and joint pains he developed motor skill problems and dementia before he died. 

Almost any medical professional worth his or her license, whenever a patient dies of a strange ailment, takes the precaution of preserving tissue and blood samples for future research.  It is extremely fortunate that some doctors going all the way back to the late 1950s had been so far-sighted.  Working backward and re-examining suspicious or otherwise unresolved deaths from contagion globally proved enriching in piecing together the history of AIDS. 

Running Dugas to ground, however, was pointless.  At the time, there were no criminal laws penalizing the willful spread of a known fatal disease (since then, law changes allow charges of attempted and pre-meditated murder to be brought in many states against anyone who is HIV-positive purposefully engaging in unprotected sexual intercourse with an unwitting partner).

Dating America’s exposure to AIDS is irrelevant: AIDS is a global problem.  And continuing research has led to many more interesting facts about the spread of HIV.

In his wake, one of the unfortunate legacies he left was a renewed homophobia relative to male flight attendants.  They became a lightning rod for America’s fear and anger over AIDS and its links with homosexuality.  “Patient Zero”, Gaëtan Dugas, was reviled; in death he was even accused of bringing HIV to North America and spreading it around the country.

In 1979, before Dugas was infected, a bisexual German concert violinist, Herbert Heinrich, died.  In 1989, after testing of medical samples from his body, it was learned he was HIV-positive. 

Of a most enlightening nature was Rayford’s adamant refusal of any rectal exams.  It seemed that he may have been exposed to homosexual activity (assuming the submissive role in anal intercourse).  One of his attending physicians believed that he had been a victim of sexual abuse (a very likely scenario considering Rayford’s socio-economic background).  He could also have been “pimped out” against his will by someone who procured males to engage with him.  To date, this aspect of his life is unclear.

This doctor handled, and talked with (though reported as largely uncommunicative), Robert Rayford personally for a period during Rayford’s confinement, and also attended Rayford’s autopsy, confirming the KS diagnosis and noting the preservation of tissue samples that later were shown to carry the variant of the HIV-1 virus.

This makes little sense. 

Both his wife and daughter developed an illness that mimicked his symptoms, and they died in 1977. Memory Elvin Lewis

Dr. Louis City Hospital, then transferred to Barnes Hospital (now Barnes-Jewish Hospital) in St.  

AIDS is what defined the decade of the 1980s, a decade that lived in fear beneath the penumbra of a certain and tortuous death from a highly communicable pathogen. Louis, Missouri) was the earliest confirmed victim of AIDS in North America.

The teen seemed stabilized by late 1968 (when he was around 15 years old).  He had been transferred to Deaconess Hospital by then, and in March 1969, however, all of his symptoms reappeared and rapidly worsened.  His breathing labored; his white blood cell count (as part of routine blood work) was noted to have dropped dramatically.  The only thing concurred at the time was that Rayford’s immune system had been somehow compromised.  He developed a fever and died either in the late hours of May 15, 1969, or the early hours of May 16 (sources differ).  His primary physician recalled, “Eventually his entire body constituted almost one wave of hard lumps and watery swellings.”

The term “velvet rope” came into existence then – a red velvet rope (as one might see in a museum keeping patrons at a safe distance from a particularly priceless exhibit) became the literal and symbolic barrier between the plebes on the street and the hipsters within.  Each night crowds gathered outside Studio 54’s doors; admission was granted whimsically by a group of door men and many times by Steve Rubell himself. 

The music was disco, the dance beat adapted from gay men and their party scene.  The mock S&M dance moves, the sweaty bodies, the throb of the music, the drugs consumed, and the fact that not just anyone could get in heightened its allure.

As further incentive to not hire men as flight attendants, the death of a gay steward in 1954 became a scandal sufficiently great to lead to a rash of “fag bashings” (both gay men and lesbians were targeted) in Miami, Florida.  It was one of the nation’s worst anti-gay outbreaks in history. 

He had a chlamydia infection (a bacterial venereal disease), clearly indicating he was sexually active.  His doctors also uncovered evidence of the herpes simplex virus and the virus responsible for Epstein-Barr.  Robert Rayford was not terribly forthcoming with his doctors, partly due to his retardation leaving him mostly uncommunicative, but also because he was embarrassed by something.

By April of 1982, 248 cases of the disease were reported nationwide with many others too afraid or indifferent to see a doctor.  A virus was isolated in 1983 by French scientists (as Europeans were also recognizing and treating patients with “gay cancer”, many of whom were decidedly not gay). 

AIDS now had a face.

False Positive

Mr.

The airline industry developed glamour.  The titillation of a sexy stewardess in uniform, pandering to any business traveler’s ego, was priceless.  These were women without boundaries, women who went anywhere, anytime.  Therefore, they must be promiscuous.  The unspoken possibility of sex with a globe-trotting gal was also alluring.  Married women were aggressively discouraged from working as stewardesses.  The single women, all within a certain preferred range of body type, height, and attractiveness, were wanton women (in the minds of the average male of the day).  Although morbid obesity was not the problem in the 1940s it is today, there were no “big girls” on board.

The Greek letter “?” always refers to the end of an event or series, not its beginning.  Dugas was “Patient Zero”, not “Patient ?” – if the intent was to use such a Greek designation, he would have been named “Patient Alpha” (“?” or “?”)  for “the beginning”.  It is known that Dugas from the earliest investigations, based on diagrams the CDC (and others) created interlinking sexual contacts among those diagnosed with or dead from the mystery disease, was referred to from the start as Patient Zero (not Omega or “O”).

He started out as a hairdresser.  Wanting to travel, this French-speaking Canadian learned that flight attendants for Air Canada had to be bi-lingual.  He moved to Vancouver and learned English to qualify for the job.  He found work as a flight attendant on Air Canada.  This career choice allowed him the freedom to move around the world, visiting exotic locales, and meeting many strange men for anonymous sexual encounters.  In 1977, he was legally married in Los Angeles, California, in an illegal attempt to gain United States citizenship.

Grethe Rask was a Danish surgeon who had traveled to Zaire in 1972 to lend medical aid for the sick there.  She returned to Denmark in 1976 and became relentlessly ill.  Her symptoms confounded her colleagues.  She died in December 1977.  Several years later in 1984, it was confirmed through testing she was HIV-positive.  During her time in Zaire, it was known she was directly exposed to blood – it is believed this was the source of her infection.

Gaëtan Dugas fit right in with the gay community of the bath houses.  He was blond, voluble, and open.  Sex for him was a series of anonymous engagements, many times conducted hastily in bathroom stalls.  He took on whatever he felt like.  As well as many other men, he was developing what would become known as “The Clone Look”: close-cropped hair, largish but well-groomed mustache, muscle shirts, short shorts.  [The quintessential version of “The Clone Look” would be Freddie Mercury (rock band Queen’s lead vocalist who died of AIDS) after about 1981.] 

Thus, by the late 1940s male flight attendants were not only undesirable, they were suspect as well.  Occupying a job with women that devoted itself to customer service, good manners, and fine grooming, the stewards garnered suspicions of being “queer”.

Diverting conversations occurred between Rayford and his primary care givers when questioned about his sexual activities.  His doctors had not considered homosexuality initially, and all conversations, such as they were, seemed to be taken as referring to female sexual contacts.

Dr. Memory Elvin-Lewis, thank you so much for not only your contributions to science but to my humble efforts at disseminating it for general readership.  I truly appreciate it.

The disease it spawned was rechristened, in light of its indiscriminate virology, to Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome or AIDS.  That same year that 248 cases of the disease were reported, local health departments in conjunction with the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) in Atlanta began investigating.

Of the 248 cases known before the detection of the virus, interviewing led to the shocking revelation that at least 40 AIDS victims had one thing in common: all had either had sex with a certain male, blond, gregarious Air Canada flight attendant, or they had sex with someone who did.  This networking connection was made in 1984, and it was critical – it meant medical and public health officials investigating the source of AIDS might have finally gotten the breakthrough they needed. 

The very first air flight attendants (in the 1920s) were men.  These positions were desirable; the men who did these jobs executed their duties more like up-scale, futuristic train porters and ship stewards than as menials.  As with many professions in that era (especially in service jobs such as telephone operators, bank tellers, et al) the sky porters known as “stewards” were exclusively male.  World War I saw the shift from male to female telephone operators and bank tellers; with a dearth of male workers during World War II, employers turned to the fairer sex to fill their employment needs in the airline industry, too. 

Certainly it was not Gaëtan Dugas (though, like Typhoid Mary over half a century before him, many deaths could be placed squarely on his doorstep). 

Instead, about the only thing that can be said of HIV is that its “Ground Zero” location was almost certainly Central Africa.  

Author’s note

Larry Kramer was actively and aggressively involved with what was then known as “gay cancer” in the early 1980s when the disease first made its poisonous presence visibly known in the United States as “gay cancer”. 

Dugas remained unrepentant.  He originally denied that whatever disease it was he had could be transmitted sexually.  His own words on the subject: “Of course I’m going to have sex.  Nobody’s proven to me that you can spread cancer.”  His depraved indifference to his sexual partners’ well-being was summarized with “It’s their duty to protect themselves.  They know what’s going on out there.  They’ve heard about this disease.”  The last element of his bitterness was voiced by his wish to take others with him: “I’ve got gay cancer.  I’m going to die and so are you.” 

From a front-line perspective

Concern for dying gay men was not paramount on America’s mind.  As more cases of the mysterious killer emerged, the name was changed from “gay cancer” to “gay-related immune deficiency” (GRID).  This, at least, was an open recognition that whatever was causing the disease was compromising a body’s immune system.  It didn’t explain, however, the rather esoteric choice of gay men (and soon discovered, IV drug users) by an unintelligent, non-sentient pathogen as victims.  It wasn’t until the first heterosexual cases of “gay cancer” emerged that the disease was examined more closely.

Gay and straight partiers alike finally found their Valhalla, however, in New York City in a crummy little club in the 1970s called Studio 54.  This rat hole was converted into a hot spot known all over the world.  Celebrities fell all over themselves to get in and be seen there.  Its allure was its faux air of exclusivity.  No club before or since carried the cachet of Studio 54.  Co-founded and owned by a cabaret-style, (almost a caricature) flamboyantly gay man, Steve Rubell, and a straight-laced heterosexual lawyer, this kitschy club defined hipsters in the Seventies. 

There is an interesting correlation between homosexuality and the airline industry.  At least, there is a publicly perceived correlation as it pertains to airline flight attendants.

Gaëtan Dugas, the narcissistic and embittered flight attendant, alternately feeling morose and spiteful about his condition, was given the code name “Patient Zero”, the source of the AIDS epidemic in North America. 

In America, the results of further research led to the conclusion that Gaëtan Dugas had not been the true “Patient Zero” after all.

Meanwhile, as a symbolic sign of the coming Armageddon, Studio 54 was forced to close its doors for liquor license violations and tax evasion; entrepreneurs Steve Rubell and his business partner were sentenced to short terms of imprisonment.  [Rubell later died of AIDS.]

The End of Days was seemingly at hand.

Gay men realized the danger.  Many made the intuitive leap early that perhaps certain activities, such as anal intercourse, might be transmitting the causative agent.  Others flatly refused to believe that their lifestyles might be endangering the health of themselves and of others.  They felt it was a perceived backlash against gay men.  Higher-profile gay men (many closeted during their lifetimes) and activists within the gay community began dying as well as underground sub-culture members (the “Crisco, leather, and fisting” set).

“I’m Candy – Fly Me!”

Gateway to the West

Certainly, the African-American teenager Robert Rayford (who had never been outside the city of his birth) was not Patient Zero, either – somebody had to give it to him in the first place.

A year earlier, a Portuguese man known only as Senhor José died under mysterious circumstances.  He was treated at the London Hospital for Tropical Diseases to no effect.  In later years, examination of preserved tissues verified he died of AIDS; the causative virus, HIV-2 was present, making him the first known confirmed victim.  Genetic research on the virus indicated he probably contracted the disease in 1966 in Guinea-Bissau (on the northwest coast of Africa).  Three gay men in California and six Haitian immigrants to the United States were later confirmed as AIDS victims from that same year.

By the 1950s, this homophobia was rampant, and in the conservative times of Eisenhower and McCarthyism, men were slowly pushed out of the steward jobs.

Air Canada

Years later, once medical science, and particularly genetics testing, had reached a greater level of technological advance, a revision of the “Patient Zero” findings of 1984 seemed necessary.  What was learned by later research was both fascinating and horrific simultaneously.  It turned out, HIV had not only been in the world for over a century, but it had been in the United States as early as 1966. 

His first months in the hospital were spent with his doctors cutting back on his water and salt intake, and they wrapped and raised his legs, all to cut down on his tissue’s swelling.  Despite this, the inflammation moved up his body and into his lungs.  Antibiotics were tried in varying dosages, but Rayford’s condition continued to deteriorate. 

This virus, after much international wrangling for recognition of discovery (with a particularly aggressive and bombastic US virologist lobbying for a claim that he had found it first–he did not) was later named Human Immunodeficiency Virus or HIV. 

***

He wrote myriad articles on the subject and penned a stage play, “A Normal Heart”, that did well.  In May 2014, this stage play was brought to the small screen.  It was presented as a movie on HBO starring Jim Parsons (of “Big Bang Theory” TV fame).  The story documented the earliest days of the AIDS epidemic in America told from the perspective of the New York City/Fire Island cohort.  It is engaging: it is what TV can do (but usually fails to do except in rare cases like this one).

Because of the baffling nature of his case, doctors preserved several tissue and blood samples for later evaluation.  In 1987, eighteen years after his death, molecular biologists at New Orleans’ Tulane University tested specimens of Rayford’s preserved blood and tissues.  Their findings were stunning: a virus “closely related or identical to” HIV-1 was detected.  Further confirmation testing in 1989  proved Robert Rayford (African-American teenage male of St.

How to Bet Proposition Bets at a Sportsbook by RJ Bell

Here’s how the money line would be listed: Serena Williams -400 / #102 Ranked Opponent +360.

Furthermore, a tennis match would be considered a tournament-style head-to-head matchup since the competitors involved directly play against each other in the event. The two main ways of wagering on non-team sports are “Betting to Win” an event and “Matchup Betting” which pits an individual against another individual or a group of individuals. If her opponent pulls off the upset, $100 bet on the underdog would profit $360 (plus the return of the $100 risked). Props, also known as exotic wagers, are also extremely popular on high-profile team sporting events like the Super Bowl in Las Vegas . A NFL future bet on a team to win the Super Bowl might be 20/1 in the preseason; but by midseason, their odds might decrease to 10/1 if they turn out to be legitimate championship contenders.

Every $400 bet on Serena nets a $100 profit if she wins (plus the return of the $400 risked). For more information on how this works, be sure to check out How to Read the Money Line.

Before every major event in non-team sports like golf, tennis and auto racing, futures are set by oddsmakers. The same holds true for major team sports like NFL and college football, NBA and college basketball and MLB baseball. Betting sides and totals on major sports like baseball, basketball and football are the most common wagers available everywhere. The Imperial Palace Casino’s sportsbook is well-known for the enormous number of prop bets offered. These are not fixed and are adjusted by sportsbooks several times leading up to the event and are sometimes released months before an event. For example, betting on the 2006 Masters golf tournament now might get you much better value on Tiger Woods, who may be 10/1 at this moment but dip to 6/1 closer to the event if he is on a roll. Since golf and NASCAR both have pre-qualifying, not everybody makes the cut to the final day of competition, and these group matchups require all individuals to qualify in order to be eligible for action. The odds on a “field” bet are typically comparable to a bet on the favorite in order to protect sportsbooks from taking a big hit if a major upset occurs. In exchange for a lesser payout, field bettors gain the advantages of having more than one entrant that can win for them. So be aware of all your wagering options and don’t miss out on the excitement non-team sports have to offer with prop betting!

What player will score the game’s first touchdown

Matchup Betting

It is very important to note that not all the competitors in an event may be listed, so another betting option is on the “field” which includes all other competitors not listed.

What will be the exact margin of victory

Group matchups are another way “matchup betting” is used which is particularly popular in golf and auto racing events like NASCAR, where you can select whether a leading competitor or a few other lesser competitors will finisher higher amongst the group, with the odds again based on money lines. Unlike team sports such as football, non-team sports also have multiple events over the course of a year, so “Betting to Win” obviously happens much more frequently than a once a year NFL futures bet on the Super Bowl winner does. These artificial matchups are also fake in the sense that bookmakers are the ones creating them – solely for betting purposes – and different books will often offer different matchups. Open tennis tournament, a reasonable money line would require Serena bettors to risk $400 to win $100 while a $100 bet on her opponent would win $360. Other examples of props for non-team sports include what racing team will finish highest in a particular NASCAR race (Chevy, Ford or Dodge) or how many rounds will the fight between Mike Tyson and Kevin McBride last (Over/Under 8.5 rounds).

Betting to Win

Contributed by:

“Betting to Win” an outcome event like The Masters is the most common way to wager on individuals competing for a particular non-team title.

For example, if Serena Williams faced an overmatched opponent in the U.S. For example, you can bet on:

RJ Bell

©Pregame.com 2006

Website: http://www.Pregame.com

The main advantage of futures is that you can get appealing odds by betting far in advance of when the event takes place.

As you can see, there’s much more to betting than simply totals and sides, especially when it comes to gambling on non-team sports.

For non-team sports like golf, boxing, tennis and NASCAR, “Matchup Betting” offers an alternative to simply betting on the event’s winner. However, many sportsbooks also offer proposition bets (or props short) for gambling on non-team sports like golf, tennis, boxing and auto racing – including NASCAR – due to their growing popularity.

What team will win the coin toss

Proposition bets for non-team sports are not limited to “Betting to Win” an event and “Matchup Betting” but those are the primary ways to wager on them.

An example with team sports would be NFL futures, where you often can get much higher odds on a team by betting before the season starts. “Matchup Betting” generally involves an individual going up against another individual in a head-to-head event, such as a tennis match, and the odds are determined using the money line. An artificial head-to-head matchup involves competitors in an event like a golf tournament or auto race who are indirectly competing against each other since in reality they are competing against everybody in the field, not just one other competitor.

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How To Master Sports Betting

It doesn’t matter if it is pretty or not.

. You want to know who trained and who didn’t. So do yourself a favor and swear off them. Anything less than this and it is going to be a disaster. This means that when you place your bets you need to be thinking clearly and concisely. Because of this point, it is probably better if you steer clear from any matches involving the teams that you like. You can’t let the highs and lows affect you too much.

Look for value bets. If you are going to do it you need to do it properly and master it, it means you are completely organized and focused. It is only going to place you in a difficult position and as much as you might think it won’t be, your decision making ability is going to be compromised. You will be better off for doing so in the long run.

In the case of team sports, injuries are important. Upsets are always going to happen but see when it makes the most sense when to go for that and when not to. The weather conditions also make a difference as they do in horse racing. For instance, if you are pretty certain that a side is going to win and they are getting good odds for this than take this. Hopefully this kind of thinking will keep you grounded. What is the point of drowning yourself in statistics and research for what you could just as easily decided with a flip of the coin? So you need to sift through it all and just take the morsels here and there which are really important and make a difference. Thus when you are doing well, you will still be focused and when you aren’t doing so well you won’t be thinking that it’s the end of the world. Also look into how sides perform the week after doing certain travel. Business is business and you need to be concentrating on who is going to win regardless of who likes and who doesn’t like which team.

Information and doing your homework is important, but you don’t want to full into the trap of information overload. You don’t want to lose money just because you weren’t on top of your game.

The most important thing is that you need to take emotion out of the equation. It could provide great insight as to predicting what will occur.

Sports betting is an easy way to make a tough living. Travel is a factor such as when East Coast sides travel to the West Coast and vice versa. Over time, you will learn what it should be that you should be paying attention to.

_Castlewellan

Speaking of the long run, this is what you should be focused on. On the flip side, you shouldn’t bet against a team because someone you don’t like roots for that team. It’s all about accumulating winnings. You shouldn’t favor a team because they are the team your best friend supports. So if you suffer a bad break along the way, just remember it goes with the territory

10 Websites and Games Like Club Penguin (Virtual Worlds)

If you are a fan of Club Penguin looking for another fun virtual world to play or a parent seeking information about other safe online games like Club Penguin for your child (or children) then this page will prove to be an invaluable resource.

While Club Penguin was one of the first really successful games in this space there has been a huge increase in the number of virtual worlds targeted at tweens over the past few years as companies quickly realise it is a huge (and growing market).

This flood of games into the market has produced some real great games like Club Penguin but also many poor game experiences and even some fantastic ones that have closed down (such as ToonTown Online and Star86) which can also be frustrating after having invested so much time in a game that you love.

There are many websites and games like Club Penguin that offer a great experience for children, teenagers and even their parents.

I originally put this list together for a family friend and decided to share it here so other fans of the Club Penguin universe can find similar experiences that are both fun, friendly and safe. If you have any additional favourite games please don’t hesitate to share them in the comment section at the end of the page.

How to Play Online Casino Games

Know the value of online casino reviews

Perhaps you want to push your luck and want to try a fast and easy way to earn money. If you happen to have a fast internet connection then there is no need to check the site’s download speed. Well, you can always try online casino games. Take note that different online casino sites specialize in various types of games so you need to make sure that you end up with the site that will fit in to your kind of entertainment.. However, if you have a limited line, it matters to check on this matter.

Know your type of game

Check the game’s download and running speed

There are different types of casino games. However, remember that customer reviews are only there to serve as recommendations. And factor in the fact that not everything that works well on other people works the same way for you. Just don’t release an amount that is more than you can afford to lose. To attract, client, many of them offers bonuses. There are professional sites like cascara.ca that published these reviews and they can be yours to read for free. In the end, you will be the one who will make the final purchasing decision. Others rely on point accumulation basis, tournament bonus, VIP bonuses and many others. If you are still new to it and want to know how this is to be done then visit cascara.ca. So choose a site that has the most offers. After all, you wouldn’t want to find yourself encountering unfamiliar words while you are in the process of calculating your odds.

Choose a site that comes with the best offer

A site that can be used using your language is most preferable

The industry of online casino has become very popular these days. You can read Slotjoint review at Casino Car to know more about casino games and how to take advantage of them.

Since you can’t test all online casino games before you invest your money, you can take advantage of their reviews. Just be certain which offer will give you the advantage in the long run.

Online casinos employ various gaming platforms. Remember that speed is one factor that will determine the kind of entertainment you can get from online games. Choose the one that has your native English translation. The most common is the initial sign up bonus. To know more on how to use online casino games to your advantage, visit cascara.ca.

If you don’t speak English then language can be an issue for you. Hence, you can only expect the competition to be so stiff. And now that sign in bonuses are already offered, you have the chance to start off with a significant amount of money. So, check out what’s available and decide what type of game you would love to play. Most sites can be played using English language. However, there are some that has language accessibility

How the Sports Betting Line is Made by RJ Bell

“You either have a passion for it or you don’t,” Seba said. For example, the public might have heavy betting interest week after week on a popular college football team such as USC.

Once a game’s power rating based pointspread is determined, the oddsmaker will make adjustments to that line after considering each team’s most recent games played and previous games played against that opponent. By moving the line, sportsbooks can influence how the public bets on a particular game. If an oddsmaker comes up with a preliminary line of USC -7, then an adjustment up to -7.5 or -8 would be made in response to the public’s expected USC bias. Obviously, if the line comes out a week ahead of the event (which is the case in football), there is much that could happen during the week leading up to the event that could affect the line. Once the opening line is released by LVSC, the individual sportsbooks decide if they want to make any adjustments before offering it to the public. Of course there is an entire method to the madness on how the opening line is created. Seba explained that it all starts with each oddsmaker creating a line on each game based upon their own personal approach. Of the 4-5 oddsmakers, generally the 2 most respected opinions are weighed more heavily by the Odds Director before he decides on the final line.

“The #1 thing for us is to make a line for each game that creates good two-way action.

“The main objective is that our clients get equal action on both sides,” Seba said.

Contributed by:

Oddsmakers at LVSC are professional sports junkies who love what they do and would probably do it for nothing if you asked them, but they do get paid for it. By necessity their approach is very research-oriented and concise, since with millions of dollars at risk there is little margin for error. Also, adjustments are made after reading each team’s local newspapers to get a sense of what the coaches & players are thinking going into the game. Each of these oddsmakers bring unique opinions, strengths and weaknesses to the process.

What Is the Line Trying to Accomplish?

Why the Line Changes

Since the oddsmaker’s ultimate goal is equally dividing the betting action, public perception and betting patterns must be taken into account.

Individual books having players who consistently bet with certain tendencies (such as an extreme bias toward favorites or toward a certain popular team like USC)

Once betting begins, sportsbooks can adjust the line at any time.

RJ Bell

©Pregame.com 2006

Website: http://www.Pregame.com

The last step in the line-making process for each oddsmaker is taking one final look to determine whether or not the line “feels right.” This is where common sense and past experience with how games are bet enters into the picture. Examples of non-game factors that would require an adjustment to a team’s power rating are key player injuries and player trades. People think it’s much more complicated, but it’s not.”

There is a common misconception that point spreads represent the oddsmakers’ prediction of how many points the favorite will win by.

Experts working for the individual books having a strong opinion on the game

The opening line is the first line created by the oddsmakers, which is then sent out to sportsbooks.

For example, if the pointspread on a game is 7 and most of the money is coming in on the underdog (taking the +7), sportsbooks will then move the number down to 6 ½ to try and attract money on the favorite. That is not the case at all – their intent is NOT to evenly split the ATS result between the teams; rather, their goal is to attract equal betting action on both sides. Reasons for such adjustments include:

How the Opening Line Is Made

Divided action means the sportsbook is guaranteed a profit on the game because of the fee charged to the bettor (called juice or vig – typically $11 bet to win $10). .

The purpose of these adjustments, like all line adjustments, is to more equally divide the betting action. The power ratings are adjusted after each game a team plays.

A round-table discussion among the 4-5 oddsmakers involved in making the line for each sport is then conducted and a consensus line is decided upon by the Odds Director before it is released to the sportsbooks. This usually includes having up-to-date power ratings on each team. “We’re not trying to pick the team that covers the spread, we’re trying to make it a coin flip, a tough decision (for the bettor). In doing so they attempt to make more attractive the team that is getting less action. Oddsmakers have to determine if any changes are necessary and send out an “adjusted line.”

Las Vegas Sports Consultants (LVSC) is the world’s premier oddsmaking company and the most respected authority on making the lines. In our extended interview, Seba explained that there are 4-5 oddsmakers assigned to make lines for each of the major sports (pro & college football and basketball; MLB, NHL, boxing, golf).

Power ratings are the oddsmaker’s value of each team and are used as a guide to calculate a “preliminary” pointspread on an upcoming game. Stated another way, they want to create a line that half the people find appealing to bet one way while the other half find it appealing to bet the other way (known as ‘dividing the action’).

Oddsmakers can also change the line depending on various event-related factors such as player injuries or weather. We do this by drawing from past experiences and applying them to current situations. Mike Seba is a Senior Oddsmaker at LVSC and has been making lines for the last six years. If we’ve done that, we’ve done our job.”

Moving the line is the oddsmaker’s effort to balance betting action, and often times such moves can have a major impact on a bettor’s decision

A Beginners Guide To Betting On Greyhound Racing

Using the odds and learning about the dogs and the specifics of the sport can be a great way to get into greyhound racing betting online.

Choosing between the many greyhound racing websites that are available is simple, when the reputation of the website is compared with the races and the bets that can be made.

Using these two factors, greyhound racing betting sites will determine the prize that is going to be awarded. Many times, these prizes are outlined with the bet that is being made, allowing even beginners to determine the potential prize that is available with the bet that has been made.

As one of the most popular types of animal racing in the world, greyhound racing betting has many different types of bets that can be made with many different types of outcomes. Online betting sites with “racebooks” set the greyhound racing betting odds.

The odds are available through the race and are created by the sports books. It is important to realize that the odds given for the race are accurate and the odds makers have years of experience in determining the results of the race and therefore the odds should be considered accordingly.. There are often multiple dogs that are involved in the race and the bets are made on the position that the dogs are going to arrive over the finish line. These odds are going to determine the likelihood of a certain dog coming in a certain place through the race.

Many online racebooks allow the bettor to take part in betting practices without actually being in the local area, as they can showcase the matches online with the use of the streaming video that can be presented to clients, allowing the clients to watch the races that are being bet on, with ease.

How can you determine what the prize will be once the bet has been made? The prize that will be given to the successful bettor depends on two factors; the amount that has been bet and the odds that are placed on the bet that has been made.

The important odds to consider are the first, second and third for most bets that are being made

Biggest Gambling Countries In The World

According to business advisory firm MAG Consulenti Associati, the electronic gaming makes up half of Italy’s total gaming revenues in first half of 2011.

Gaming Losses Per Adult: $517

Gaming Losses Per Adult: $553

Interestingly enough, the country’s national lottery company, Veikkaus, belongs to the government and is operated by the ministry of education. Although the government has imposed an entry fee of S$100 ($80.50) for citizens entering the casino, the country’s gaming revenue is expected to hit $6.4 billion in 2011 and outpace Las Vegas.

Australia: Biggest Gambling Country in the World

Australia is the craziest country when it comes to gaming and gambling. Reportedly, over 75 percent of adult Canadians took part in the games last year in which the most popular games are lotteries and Scratch and Win cards.

Gaming Losses Per Adult: $517

Australia

Gaming Losses Per Adult: $568

Top Online Gambling Mistakes

Gaming Losses Per Adult: $1,174

Gambling’s Famous Icons

Gaming Losses Per Adult: $568

Italy

Gaming Losses Per Adult: $1,174

The most favorite gambling activity in Italy is electronic gaming machine. H2 Gambling Capital has released the list of biggest gambling countries due to average gaming losses.

Gaming Losses Per Adult: $1,288

Era of Online Gambling

Singapore

The potash-rich province of Saskatchewan is home to the biggest gamblers in Canada. Finland

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Singapore offered the very first casino some years ago which then became the world’s third largest-gaming center after Macau and Las Vegas. Furthermore, the slot machines named pokies are the most favorite game in Australia with an estimated number of 75-80 percent of problem gamblers. In this country, gaming companies bet people on whether the central bank’s interest will increase or not. Otherwise, Australia is the only country that allows online bets on sports but prevents gamblers from using the Internet to place bets during live games.

Las Vegas is well-known as the gambling industry of the world; however, American people are not the biggest gamblers on Earth. Most profits go to education, arts and culture.

Gaming Losses Per Adult: $1,288

Canada

Gaming Losses Per Adult: $553